Real-time simulation of violent boiling in concentrated sulfuric acid dilution


Concentrated sulfuric acid dilution is an essential yet hazardous experiment in chemistry education. Incorrect operations can lead to intensive boiling and splattering or even endanger the experiment operator. This paper presents a novel approach to simulate the violent boiling phenomenon in real time and an efficient method to deal with particle penetration caused by fast motion. We introduce the anti-viscosity method to inject momentum into high-temperature particles and capture the chaotic dynamics in the boiling process with small computational overhead. To address the particle penetration issue, we propose a new constraint type called flask constraint which uses radius lookup tables to represent axisymmetric shapes efficiently and projects the particles back into their container when penetration occurs. These methods are integrated into a virtual reality application to simulate the concentrated sulfuric acid dilution experiment and demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our method. Our work improves the capability and stability of particle-based fluid solvers and provides appealing solutions for integrating fluid simulation into interactive applications.


Chen, W., Sang, T., Ma, Y. et al. Real-time simulation of violent boiling in concentrated sulfuric acid dilution. Vis Comput 37, 2631–2642 (2021).